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The mission of the Oregon State University graduate program in counseling is to prepare professional leaders who promote the social, psychological and physical well-being of individuals, families, communities and organizations. We believe that such professional leaders stand for social, economic and political justice and therefore must The Dual Language specialization focuses on enabling Oregon's kindergarten through 12th grade K teachers to effectively educate students in dual language settings. An education major at Oregon State University enables you to become a proactive educator.

The education program has several degree types and options. The Master of Science M. Candidates work within a cohort of peers in science and mathematics The ESOL endorsement focuses on enabling Oregon's kindergarten through 12th grade K teachers to effectively educate students who are learning English as an additional language. Bioengineering is an interdisciplinary field that applies engineering principles and quantitative methods to the advancement of knowledge at the molecular and cellular levels through the ecosystem level, and to the development of new and novel biologics, materials, devices, and processes.

The BEE department offers programs leading to M. The objective of these programs are to serve as the interface between life sciences and engineering. Biological and Ecological Engineering is the application of engineering and life-science principles and problem-solving techniques to the optimum use The School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering offers the following degrees in chemical engineering. The School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at Oregon State University provides a comprehensive, state-of-the-art education that prepares our students to be successful in engineering practice, advanced studies and research.

The Computer Science master's program provides advanced instruction beyond the undergraduate degree.

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It prepares students for careers in which a higher level The master's degree provides advanced instruction beyond the undergraduate degree. It prepares students for careers in which a higher level of Graduate studies in Environmental Engineering at Oregon State University emphasize the understanding of fundamental scientific and engineering principles to manage and solve environmental problems in natural and engineering systems. The instructional program is designed to develop strong analytical, design, and management capabilities in the application of biological, chemical and physical Industrial Engineering is the application of science, mathematics, and engineering methods to complex system integration and operation.

Because the systems with which they work is so large and complex, industrial engineers IEs must develop expertise in a wide variety of disciplines, the ability to work well with people, and a broad, systems perspective. The discipline of Materials Science is inherently interdisciplinary, involving fundamental aspects of chemistry, physics, biology, geoscience, agricultural science, mathematics, and engineering.

Reflecting this character, the materials science program at Oregon State University, initiated in the s, is spread over nine different departments spanning three OSU colleges. This allows The Mechanical Engineering ME profession is dedicated to applying principles of physics, chemistry, biology and mathematics in the analysis, design, manufacturing and maintenance of mechanical components, devices, and systems.

Oregon State's graduate program in ME is designed to educate leaders who will develop and improve systems for transforming energy, health, materials, and information Please apply to this program using the OHSU application system. Medical Physics examines and applies numerous aspects of nuclear science to medicine.

Medical physicists rarely have direct contact with patients, but are part of many treatment teams. For example, medical physicists crunch the numbers for radiation The Nuclear Engineering graduate degree is designed to prepare students for careers involved with the many beneficial applications of nuclear energy, The Radiation Health Physics program is designed to prepare students for careers involved with the many beneficial applications of nuclear energy The field of robotics has grown significantly in the last decade and continues to do so at an accelerating rate.

Robots were, until very recently, in the hands of a few specialists, but are increasingly moving into the mainstream. Household robots, prosthetic limbs, robotic cars, assistive care robots, and search and rescue robots are all becoming a part of our lives. Robots for exploration This graduate program combines a strong social science faculty with a strong biological and ecological science faculty and so provides an unusual opportunity to focus on the interface of social science and ecology. The FES graduate program provides specific disciplinary opportunities in both ecological and social sciences in the natural resource setting but also strives to develop Expand your understanding of climate change impacts on forest ecosystems with an online certificate in Forests and Climate Change.

If you are a working forestry professional this online certificate is a great way to expand your academic credentials in an area of increasing critical importance. Develop analytical and problem solving skills associated with complex natural resources issues, and learn from world-renowned OSU faculty. This is an accredited program in which you study the interaction of ecological, economic, ethical and social systems. Students explore multiple fields and choose an area of emphasis based on their professional goals and interests.

The program follows the sustainable principles outlined by the Montreal Process Criteria and Indicators. These principles have been adopted by the state of Oregon. Students have a choice among 12 courses designed to build personal and organizational capacity to examine the many aspects of natural resource problems—environmental, economic, and social—in the search for innovative solutions.

Environmental Engineering

Urban forestry involves the planning, planting, and management of trees and related vegetation in and around cities. The urban forest is made up of the mosaic of the planted landscape and native forest remnants left behind as cities have developed. Example specialties are chemistry, physics, composites, bio-deterioration and business. Dual MS and PhD degrees are also possible. Common dual degrees are with Material Science and Civil Engineering.

Renewable materials like wood are essential to human existence. The demand for the energy and thousands of The school also offers graduate work leading to a Master of Arts in Interdisciplinary Studies and participates as a minor field in other advanced degree programs. A variety of individualized programs are The school also offers graduate work leading to a master of arts in interdisciplinary studies and participates as a minor field in other advanced degree programs.

Environment and Ecology - Part 1 - हिंदी में - UPSC CSE/ IAS Preparation - Vimal Singh Rathore

There is a great need for people who can make wise decisions about the moral and ethical issues facing the workplace, the community, and the larger world. You can be one of those people. Through coursework, a real-world practicum, and a These fields offer sufficient depth to provide a strong minor. The curriculum emphasizes administrative leadership and management of programs and services. Included in these programs and services are:.

Oregon State University has a long tradition of excellence in producing and teaching creative writing, going all the way back to the s when the future distinguished novelist William Kittredge was a student here, and Bernard Malamud won a National Book Award while teaching in the English Department. In the School of Writing, Literature, and Film we pride ourselves on providing vibrant and forward-looking learning environments for the study of textual disciplines and complex literacies. As of fall term, , we have 48 graduate students.

The majority of MA and all MFA students receive full funding through graduate teaching assistantships or grants and fellowships. Graduate work in the School of Language, Culture, and Society may serve as a field of study for the Master of Arts in Interdisciplinary Studies degree or as a minor in other advanced degree programs.

The program offers an interdisciplinary exploration of the critical areas of race, class, ethnicity, and gender in American life, as well as focused study of the four major ethnic minority groups This interdisciplinary graduate minor in Food in Culture and Social Justice prepares students to examine food from a variety of perspectives.

When and how we eat, what is considered acceptable to eat, how we prepare it, and how we learn about producing and eating food are all fascinating questions to explore by humanists and social scientists. Histories of particular food S is an interdisciplinary degree that offers students their choice of three separate areas of study. Many students have successfully integrated language and culture study in French , German or Spanish with other fields such as adult education or public health.

From the History and Philosophy of Science to Applied Ethics and Religion, our courses connect across the OSU campus providing a broad perspective and a unique insight into the issues facing our world. Our students and faculty research on and collaborate with a wide array of disciplines from Oceanography to Nuclear Engineering - from Music to Environmental Science. Our school provides The History of Science graduate program provides professional training in the interdisciplinary subject of history of science. The program connects the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences by studying and interpreting the development of the sciences within particular historical settings and analyzing the changing roles of the sciences within modern cultures.

Emphasis in the The School of History, Philosophy, and Religion is committed to teaching students the skills and knowledge they need to reason cogently and decide wisely about difficult issues they will confront as citizens and professionals. The school offers graduate work leading to the Master of Arts in Interdisciplinary Studies degree with specialization in applied ethics and in other areas of philosophy In the Political Science program, you'll learn the ideas of great political thinkers, controversies involved in issues as current as the front page of today's newspapers, and everything in between.

You will have engaging discussions and debates from all points of view in class, with students and professors. You'll learn to think critically, write clearly and speak persuasively. You'll learn The School of Psychological Science offers a Ph. The program focuses on the application of psychological methods and research to solving practical problems, with areas of concentration in Applied Cognition, Engineering Psychology, and Health Psychology. Oregon State University offers both Master and PhD Public Policy degrees for students interested in the study and practice of policy about issues critical to Oregonians and the world, drawing on the traditional strengths and emerging signature areas of OSU.

While there is a science of policy including theoretical and methodological approaches that we expect students to master, the discipline The graduate minor in Queer Studies prepares students to examine how gender and sexuality are constructed and policed and, further, imagines liberatory futures for people of all genders and sexualities. Students enrolled in the Graduate Certificate in Rural Policy are offered a choice of over a dozen courses that will prepare them with the skills and competencies needed to understand economic, social, political and cultural dynamics of rural places, and to design and evaluate rural policy as it pertains to their context.

Students should follow the guidelines within their major academic program in declaring a minor. Minimum number of credits for Sociology is 15 or higher if required by major. All students interested in declaring sociology as a graduate minor must contact the Graduate Advisor in the program prior to doing so. The MAIS degree allows a graduate student to attain broad, advanced knowledge and achievement from three fields of study.

Any graduate major or minor may serve as a field for this degree. Two of the three fields may be from one department if the areas of concentration within these two Women, Gender, and Sexuality Studies is the multidisciplinary study of gender and women's lives and experiences. Course work explores women's realities in such areas as the political and social sciences, health, psychology, history, literature, and the arts.

Women, Gender, and Sexuality Studies programs grew out of the women's movement, involving understandings of discrimination in society and Our nationally renowned faculty members have strengths in all areas of pharmaceutical science, and many have been recognized for teaching excellence, outstanding research and their professional The OSU Master of Athletic Training program prepares you to work in a multitude of environments within the diverse and expanding field of athletic training. As a health care professional, athletic trainers care for and rehabilitate their patients in universities, schools, corporations, professional sports teams and more.

The Epidemiology graduate minor is intended for doctoral students who seek additional formal training and mentoring in epidemiology. The prevention of musculoskeletal injuries and the application of ergonomic principles is paramount in public health, business and engineering. The Graduate Minor in Ergonomics is for masters and doctoral-level students who seek additional formal training and mentoring in ergonomic practice.

Gerontology refers to the study of aging, and also includes adult development. The existence of large numbers of individuals over the age of 65 is unprecedented in the history of humankind. In the next ten years, the number of older adults is expected to double in developed countries, and quadruple in the developing world. This growth will pose major challenges for societies in addressing the In the Health Management and Policy track you will develop abilities to solve healthcare problems in practical ways within sound conceptual frameworks and will study health services delivery from the distinct viewpoints of those who receive, provide, finance and regulate care.

Courses emphasize the connection between financing care and delivering care, and between developing sound That essentially defines what it is - the study of relationships between those who occupy a home. Ecology studies organic life, examining such elements as spatial distribution local or general abundance and their relationship with the environment. It's considered a form of environmentalism and it is usually associated with these sciences, but it also includes aspects of biology, botany , zoology , genetics , bacteriology, chemistry and physics.

Ecology is about biodiversity in a given environment.

What Is Ecology?

It has as much in common with physiology, behavioral sciences and the evolutionary sciences as it has with environmental sciences 2 in concerning time and space. This means an ecological study can include anything from bacterial cells 3 , to gut flora, through to how many generations of aphids can populate a plant, all the way up to how deserts form and maintain a constant balance, and the impact of rainforests and ice fields on the Earth's natural processes or are impacted by planetary fluctuations 2.

As already discussed, despite being closely associated with environmental sciences, the philosophy of relationships between biological systems the actual definition of ecology can apply almost anywhere. The philosophy behind the various and sometimes disparate sciences emerged in the late 19 th century out of the growing interest in natural sciences - botany, zoology, and environmentalism mostly. Some argue that awareness of species and their relationships began with Aristotle, although his writings on the matter are largely lost.

Aristotle's student Theophrastus 4 described relationships between plants and animals but this was from a philosophical rather than a scientific perspective. The first true ecological study as we would understand it is arguably the Park Grass Experiment which began in 5 and to date in , is ongoing. Around papers have been published on the study and it has contributed to many major areas, beginning with agriculture and evolving with time to answer new and increasingly complex questions about biodiversity and evolution, the ecological impact of humans on landscapes, and the wider changing environment.

Two of Charles Darwin's contemporaries also made their own contributions. His friend Alfred Russell Wallace looked at the geography of animal species 6.

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There was a growing movement within the biological sciences that recognized how species did not exist in a bubble - that they were dependent on each other. The second contemporary was Johannes Eugenius Warming. For the first time, the scientific community started to consider the importance of environmental factors on the biological systems within it. Specifically, Warming looked at the results of fire, temperature and other abiotic influences.

Warming is now considered to have created Botanical Geography known also as biogeography and today as a division of ecology 7 and contributed greatly to the modern discipline. It was also during the late 19 th and early 20 th century that researchers began to finally understand the massive environmental impact of 19 th -century imperialist actions such as deforestation and the concerns over upsetting the environmental imbalance of the industrial revolution.

Ecology became a true discipline in the 20 th century following some late 19 th century developments. Once understood, and the importance of balance realized in any biological system, ecology quickly applied to sciences other than those concerned with the environment. Vladimir I. Vernadsky, a Russian geologist who defected to France around the time of the Russian Revolution, wrote extensively about the biosphere in the aptly titled study The Biosphere published in 8.

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He did not coin the term. That honor goes to a fellow geologist by the name of Eduard Suess, an Austrian, in The concept of the idea of our planet and the biological systems within it making up part of a whole was born. It was adopted by a number of other disciplines and taught in top academic institutions in a wide range of biological sciences. Tansley's important work was in presenting ecology as a philosophy. This alone perhaps permitted its adoption into the theories of many scientific disciplines. Also in the early part of the 20 th century, American botanist Henry Chandler Cowles effectively founded the concept of "dynamic ecology".

Studying the Indiana Dunes at the south side of Lake Michigan, he identified evidence of vegetation and soil change over large time periods His work demonstrated how environmental influences change a landscape; unlike his contemporary botanists, he was largely interested in landscape change as an influencer of botanical profiles. Tansley's and Cowles' work broadened the scope of ecology. Also, in the first half of the century, Charles Elton began animal ecology, but the real breakthrough was the work of British-born ecologist G.

Evelyn Hutchinson and his work across New England. Under his work, ecology became an applied science as well as theoretical His work impacted many subdisciplines including biogeochemistry the impact of geological, biological and chemical actions on the environment , entomology insects , genetics, limnology inland water bodies , and population dynamics theory. As already discussed, despite its strong associations with environmental studies, ecology is simply an umbrella term.

There are many subdisciplines, some of which pertain to the environment, some of which do not.

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This is one area where ecology applies to the environment. It's an applied science where practitioners use ecological principles to identify and solve problems in the real world, examining challenges for the economy and human impact The attempt to balance effective land use with conservation. Typical examples include agricultural management also known as agroecology, using interdisciplinary approach including genetics, animal and plant biology, conservation biology within the landscape, and environmental management.

The aim of this discipline is to examine the impact of humanity on the landscape and various topographies and attempt to encourage better use so the landscape and wildlife are not damaged. This fuses environment with physics and the effect of biological materials on global chemistry and vice versa. It's largely concerned with the natural physical cycles of energy and matter on our planet 11 , seeking to understand chemical reactions and the balance with biological life. Through this subdiscipline of ecology, the chemical elements of nitrogen, oxygen and carbon and their interactions in all levels of the natural environment from the lithosphere the hard outer shell of the planet through the biosphere the level at which life exists and can survive to the highest level of the atmosphere and their importance for planetary ecology. This area of ecology has an overlap with evolutionary biology as it concerns the study of species - particularly their geographic distribution.

The distribution study of species and their related ecosystems cover geological time so it can apply to paleontology and geography so it can be environmental biology and evolutionary biology. It seeks to answer questions concerning why biological species thrive in one ecological system but not in another, the effects of environmental change on species distribution on migration, contraction and spread.

It's a true multidisciplinary study, adopting elements of the environment, climate, biology, geology and evolution This niche area examines the use of chemicals in an environment This is not about pesticides or human impact, but how biological species use chemicals. It examines chemicals as defense mechanisms for example, the purposes of capsicum in chili plants as a defense, the use of sprays by skunks against predator attack, in using pheromones and other chemical substances to attract mates and mark boundaries, but also in digestive systems of animals and carnivorous plants.

Biological life uses chemistry in remarkable ways; this area also looks at the impact of those chemicals on the environment. Another aspect of ecology that overlaps with biological systems and their relationships looks at how communities of species react to and interact with each other, predators and prey and other species It can apply to human communities and the dynamics of social groups; it can equally apply to the rigid hierarchies of animal species such as wolves and meerkats, symbiotic relationships, co-operation between unrelated species.

This allows new, healthier trees to grow in abundance. The dams divert water in rivers, creating wetlands that allow a variety of animals and plants to thrive. Bees are a primary example of this. As bees take the nectar from flowers, they collect pollen and spread it from one flower to the next, enhancing the odds of fertilization and greater flower growth. Nectar and pollen are also the primary food sources for the bees themselves.

Some scientists identify other categories of keystone species. One alternate list includes predators, herbivores, and mutualists. Another cites predators, mutualists, and competitors for resources. Keystone species can also be plants. Mangrove trees, for instance, serve a keystone role in many coastlines by firming up shorelines and reducing erosion.

They also provide a safe haven and feeding area for small fish among their roots, which reach down through the shallow water. In many cases, the vital role of a keystone species in an ecosystem is not fully appreciated until that species is gone. The starfish fed on mussels, which kept the mussel population in check and allowed many other species to thrive.

When the starfish were removed from the area as part of an experiment, the mussel population swelled and crowded out other species. The biodiversity of the ecosystem was drastically reduced. The audio, illustrations, photos, and videos are credited beneath the media asset, except for promotional images, which generally link to another page that contains the media credit.