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No scheduled events. Add an event. Yes, it kinda did. And I am very happy about it. I met Dawkins the man, and through the book I realized I have many traits in common with him. His tendency for philosophy, and for the Popperian way of d Details if other :. Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. The latest issue of a brilliant series of works by a gifted author, this volume represents a rare example of a serious, highly informative popular science publication that manages to deliver precise and Felix Alba-Juez entered a giveaway. Apr 22, PM. Felix Alba-Juez liked a quote.

It is that certitude leads to violence. This is a proposition that has an easy application and a difficult one. The easy application is to ideologues, dogmatists, and bullies—people who think that their rightness justifies them in imposing on anyone who does not happen to subscribe to their particular ideology, dogma, or notion of turf. If the conviction of rightness is powerful enough, resistance to it will be met, sooner or later, by force. There are people like this in every sphere of life, and it is natural to feel that the world would be a better place without them.

Mar 06, AM. Quotes by Felix Alba-Juez. Well, for the good reason that human nature loves absoluteness, and erroneously considers it as a state of higher knowledge. Reason and factual evidence may convert a belief into knowledge. Topics Mentioning This Author. Creativity is making the complicated simple. It's the person who gets out of the shower, dries off, and does something about it that makes a difference.

Popular Science Books for Laymen — members — last activity Mar 30, AM This is a group where we list and discuss books on topics of scientific interest written for laymen and for people with elementary knowledge in the su This is a group where we list and discuss books on topics of scientific interest written for laymen and for people with elementary knowledge in the subject. These books are written in clear and lucid manner with emphasis on basics and minimum jargon. They still consider the people who keep folklore alive as simple, unlettered country folk; and they view this lore as curious customs and usages, survivals from an earlier era.

In this regard, folklorization prevented the complete suppression of occultism and magic. Opponents lacked the means to eliminate it completely, and magistrates and ministers tolerated its minimal expression,in part because such views seemed quaint and in part because they were held by the folk. These same ideas can be found in Ronald W. And these ideas become centrally important in D.

The problem with the approach taken by these scholars is not their argument that as certain segments of a social group, for whatever reason, abandon once widely held beliefs and practices, other members of the same group will continue to adhere to them and will keep them at least temporarily alive. Of course this occurs. A related problem with the approach is that, since the model of these scholars does not allow for the persistence of earlier practices in a more educated world, they have not looked for them—as their badly outdated references to folklore publications will quickly make clear.

When I taught at Utah State University, a fellow came into the archive who had heard stories of outlaws having once buried their ill-gotten gain somewhere on Samaria Mountain near Malad, Idaho. This suggests that Americans think that America remains a land of opportunity, that boundless wealth is. A quick walk through the BYU Folklore Archives should provide one with evidence that the practice is still alive and well in Utah. In their very important Water Witching U. In other words, in certain desperate and trying circumstances, in both rural and urban life, and among the educated and uneducated, many of us turn to cultural means outside ourselves to save the day.

For example, while the twentieth-century Mormon world is not the nineteenth-century world of Joseph Smith and his contemporaries, much remains constant. So long as present-day Mormons continue to believe, as did their predecessors, that through intercessory prayers and rituals they can manipulate supernatural powers to their advantage, they will continue to do so.

Hence, though supernatural experiences are not the sum of their religious values,many Mormons today still divine the future, experience dreams and visions, invoke angels and spirits, exorcise devils, seek information from the spirits of the dead, heal the sick through ceremonial means, and use talismans to ward off evil. I am not suggesting that all remains as it once was.

Felix Alba-Juez (Author of Galloping with Light - Einstein, Relativity, and Folklore)

Clearly, in response to changed cultural circumstances, some forms of folklore diminish or disappear altogether. But, and this is the crucial point, others develop to take their place—because folklore is fundamental to the human condition, arising, as I have noted, in response to recurring human situations. Another, and more serious, problem with the evolutionary approach to folklore, therefore, is that it. And we hinder, in the process, the cooperation that should exist between folklorists and historians as they seek to understand the social groups that make up our society. Students often bring these older notions of the folk to introductory folklore classes.

When they learn that they must actually collect folklore as part of the course requirements, some panic, thinking they must head off to some hinterland to uncover quaint and curious stories and practices. Others grow ecstatic when they are able to discover potential informants so old they are just about to totter into the grave. When I suggest that they forget such enterprises and begin by interviewing their roommates or people at their work places or in their families, they often look at me in amazement, never having considered that they or their acquaintances might know any folklore.

One student, convinced she could never locate any folklore, came to talk with me. Thus from doctors we often get stories like the following nurses, of course, will have their own stories about doctors : This doctor was in the hospital, and a nurse came by to get a urine specimen from him. She left the specimen bottle with him and told him that she would be back in a few minutes to collect it. Well, this doctor had just had some visitors, and they had brought him a jug of apple cider, so the doctor decided to play a trick on the nurse.

The nurse returned a few minutes later, and he asked her how she thought the specimen looked. The nurse looked at it and it seemed OK to her. But the doctor took it and held it up to the light. Barton , no. I said slip off his spectacles! So when I wrote an essay for the recent book The Mormon Presence in Canada , I tried to distinguish between these different forms of oral history. I wrote: Folklorists had been collecting and studying oral history for at least a hundred years before Allan Nevins set up the oral history program at Columbia University in the s and thus set the course many historians in subsequent years were to follow with increasing enthusiasm.

If what these scholars study is oral history, what, then, have folklorists been studying all these years? Well, another kind of oral history. Personal history is comprised of accounts of historical events collected from people who observed or participated in the events they describe. Folk history, on the other hand, is simply history that circulates within a community by word of mouth—that is, accounts of historical events collected from people who learned the stories.

Dorson, folklorist and distinguished professor of history at Indiana University So the term has been around awhile. And again: The folklorist goes to folk sources, to word-of-mouth utterances, to people in their homes or business places or leisure spots. The cultural historian goes to the library, to the writings of intellectuals.

Even when Henry Nash Smith plows through hundreds of dime novels to extract popular conceptions of Western heroes, he is reading the productions of professional writers, of intellectuals. The people who write for the folk are not the folk. Dorson , The reviewer was probably a decent enough person who loved his or her spouse and treated the family dog well.

Why the anger? So I read the review again and discovered another of those walls that keep us apart when we should be working together. And the fault was as much mine as that of the reviewer—in this instance, I had not paid close enough attention to the way at least some historians use their language. That I had made such an argument seemed self-evident. Personal history is the story of a past event told by someone who has witnessed or participated in.

Personal history must be used with great caution, given the fallibility of memory, but at least it has the validity of the eyewitness account. From the many recountings within a social group of a folk historical narrative, one can, nonetheless, abstract a consensus view. More on that later. Anyone who would like an exercise in verifying accounts of past events should drive a few miles north of Preston, Idaho, and visit the monuments located near the highway commemorating the Battle of Bear River.

I say monuments plural , because, standing a few feet from each other are two placards recounting the battle. Here pioneer women, trained through trials and necessity of frontier living, accepted the responsibility of caring for the wounded until they could be removed to Camp Douglas, Utah.

Two Indian women and three children, found alive after the encounter, were given homes in Franklin. Friction between local Indians and white travelers along this route led Connor to set out on a cold winter campaign. More than Shoshoni occupied a winter camp that offered ideal protection in Battle Creek Canyon. Folklorists would also be interested in what really occurred at the battle, but their principal interest would be in oral narratives underpinning these two accounts,narratives circulating among the people that would reveal what members of the opposing camps believe precipitated the battle and took place there.

Why this interest? Because people govern their lives not on the basis of what actually happened in the past but rather on what they believe happened—that is, on folk history—and because these beliefs will have important consequences in the lives of those who subscribe to them, as well as on the lives of those who must deal with those who subscribe to them. Being dumped there in the wintertime, they had some bitter feelings. Though the church, according to my historian friends, did not own the mine, the family believed it did and remained antagonistic to the church because of these beliefs.

Herlevi As a result, some scholars might accept it as a bit of interesting local color but then dismiss it as inconsequential for serious analysis. Sometimes folk history can take a much more vicious turn. In his Dynamics of Folklore , Barre Toelken recounts a story in which a young white boy is attacked in a drive-in restroom by members of a minority group and is then castrated. Toelken traces the story, or one like it, to a number of U. In some instances, members of the minority group are Indians, in others Mexicans, in others blacks, and in one occurrence they are even hippies.

I would add that it not only symbolizes majority fears, it also provides, or can provide, members of the majority the evidence they seek to justify repressive measures against the minority. At that time, blacks had not yet been granted priesthood privileges and the church had come under sharp attack for its racial policies. At the same time, apocryphal prophecies about racial wars and bloodshed to precede the last days spread widely through the area.

The following account is typical: Did you hear about the kids who were on their way to California and got jumped by some blacks as they stopped for something to eat? I think it was in Nevada somewhere. Anyway, they were going.

In This Article

They stopped and were jumped by some blacks who happened to see their BYU sticker on their car. They messed up the car and drove it off the road and then beat up the guys and did who knows what to the girls. Conference came and went—peacefully. Some formed neighborhood defense groups; others stored guns and ammunition; and some who had planned to travel from elsewhere to attend the conference remained home.

The reviewer of my article did admit that studying folklore is important in comprehending the mentality of a group. I would insist that it is folk history which will give us some of our best insights into that mentality. For example, a young Mormon missionary in Canada had a frightening experience which he and his companion at least believed to have been an encounter with evil spirits. He recorded the experience in his journal and related it to a few close friends.

Much to his surprise he collected versions of his own experience from informants who did not know that he was the missionary in the story. He was amazed to discover that the further the story had moved from his original telling of it, the more he and his missionary companion, who had done nothing wrong, had been converted into rule-breaking missionaries who, because of their misconduct, had become subject to the power of evil Vernon , nos. In just three years, that personal experience had, through the process of oral transmission, been transformed into the folk history of the group, serving now as a cautionary tale to warn other missionaries not to step out of line lest they too be subjected to the buffeting of Satan.

For example, considering the discomfort the earlier practice of polygamy brings to a fair number of contemporary Mormon women, what needs might be met, or attitudes expressed, or behavior governed through the telling of the following stories: This man had one wife, and he was going to take a second one.

They lived a day or two from the temple. But on the way back from the temple, the wives reversed positions. Campbell a, no. Hansen , no. Whatever they might be,it should be reasonably clear that the stories people believe and tell about events in the past—that is, their folk history—can and should provide valuable data in our attempts to delineate the behavioral patterns and the mentality or ethos of the social groups to which they belong. By no means am I suggesting that we abandon attempts to authenticate accounts of past events.

On the contrary, I am suggesting instead that in our attempts to understand. I end with the plea with which I began. Had Quinn paid attention to cutting-edge, current folklore study, he might have avoided any number of pitfalls. At the same time, I would urge folklorists to pay more careful heed to the conceptual frames from which historians work and to make their own work more understandable within those frames. And I urge all of us to be less defensive, more willing to listen, less territorial. Afterwards, some friends wondered whether my interpretation had been historical, literary, or folkloric.

Why worry so much about disciplinary boundaries? I made the introduction, and during lunch, Bert sat down with me and talked about folklore and the fact that he was going to move to Provo to become chair of the English department at BYU. I became excited to know that he would be coming to BYU and that I would be able to work with him.

That particular lunch encounter is so indicative of the kind of man Bert is. During our twenty-plus-year relationship, it has been an honor to try to live up to the human values that he taught me, not only as a student in his courses, but as a human being in everyday life. Ronald W. Walker and Doris R. Aram Veeser What all these scholars have in common is the idea that historiography is a political enterprise representing voices of elite, ruling classes.

He gives several examples from Mormon culture and history to illustrate this point. These include J. That is, the narratives will tell us much more about those who relate them than they will about the events they recount. Wilson Folklore Archives and acknowledged the merging of the archives into the L. A common misperception holds that the study of folklore is useful primarily for illuminating the past. Just the opposite is true. To be sure, folklore is born in the past and relates events that occurred at earlier times, but it lives in the present. The reason for this circumstance is simple.

Folk narratives are kept alive and are passed from person to person by the spoken word, by people who hear stories, like them, and then tell them to other people. As they participate in this process, narrators of the stories change them—not consciously, in most instances, nor in any attempt to deceive, but in response to the cultural imperatives of the moment. Like most of us who tell stories about events important to us, these narrators will selectively remember details from the past, will highlight and sometimes embellish those that appeal to them, and will leave others in shadow.

If it. And that, indeed, is the case. In those families that hold positive views of polygamy, narratives of harmony and cooperation between the families of plural wives circulate. In families that hold a less sanguine view of the practice, stories of heartbreak and discord, like the following, predominate: A kind and mild man received instructions to get another wife. She prepared the nuptial chamber and the wedding dinner. Then something happened. As she was doing the dishes and thinking things over, she got madder and madder.

She went outside, picked up a hatchet, rushed upstairs, and chopped down the door. Truth is an illusive creature, seldom fully capturable, but folklorists are as much interested in it as are any other scholars. They simply seek different kinds of truth—truths of the human heart and mind. And they know that one of the best ways to get at what people believe is to examine the stories they tell about former times. If, for instance, one wants to know what polygamy was really like, one will be much better off relying on standard historical sources.

So it is with stories of the pioneer era in general. Many people, most perhaps, do not learn of life in nineteenth-century Utah by reading historical treatises. As usually occurs in the process of myth formation and I use the word in its positive sense , the narratives have become projections onto the past of what we value in the present, historical constructions, as it were, after which we hope to conduct our own lives. In saying this, I should make clear that, while folklore is communal in nature and reveals concerns common to a group, it would be a mistake to assume that a folk community is some sort of monolithic body whose members all think and act alike.

No two members of any group will ever see the world through quite the same lenses. Still, the stories collected and submitted to the BYU Folklore Archives over the past four decades—the stories upon which this paper is based—present a fairly uniform view of the past held by those who have told the stories.

It should come as no surprise that this view is heroic. Most people seeking in their lore historical warrant for present-day action will see the past in heroic terms. Mormons are no different. The dominant theme in their pioneer narratives is struggle—struggle against nearly insurmountable forces of nature and humankind, carried on by valiant men, women, and children who do not yield to opposition.

They may suffer severe deprivation and even death, but they do not falter or waver in the faith, and they remain ever true to their vision of the kingdom of God restored. They and their stories thus serve as exemplars of the way we should confront the challenges of our lives in our contemporary world. Though the stories cover a broad range of subjects, they tend to cluster around three major themes: struggles on the trek West, struggles with Native Americans, and struggles to survive in a new land. Some of the most poignant trek stories tell of the travails of children on the trail:.

Wagons and handcarts in a circle. Parents trying to keep warm by dancing the Virginia Reel and little children playing tag or Ringaround-the-Rosie or, if they needed to be quiet and rest, to just try to catch the sunbeams in their aprons. One night, when the company was within the region of Wyoming, my greatgrandmother slept next to a little girl. The weather was especially bad and the temperatures that night went far below zero. The pair of scissors they used has been passed on from generation to generation since that time and are now in the possession of my aunt.

But she died along the way and was buried on the plains. Her little girl cried and cried. The rest of the company got ready to go after the burial, and started off. When they camped for the evening, they noticed that the little girl was not with them. They took her with them back to camp and eventually to Salt Lake. The stories about the suffering of adults focus on their hunger, their chills, their weariness, and their deaths. The following story is representative of tales that are legion: As one of the early wagon trains was nearing Utah,.

During the storm, three members of the party died. After the storm had passed, their relatives and loved ones made arrangements to bury them. The ground, however, was frozen so hard that the poor pioneers were unable to dig the necessary graves. The people were faced with the problem of not knowing what to do but of having to do something fast. They had only a few blankets, but from those few they took three.

They wrapped the bodies in these blankets. They hung the bodies from trees with ropes. They were high enough so that the wolves could not get to them. Thus, the wagon train continued on its journey toward the promised land, leaving their loved ones and friends taken care of as well as possible. McCauley Some of these pioneers, once arrived in their promised land, carried marks of the journey throughout their lives.

She and her husband had both walked across the plains as children, and as they made their journey west there seemed to be so many thorny weeds and rocks. When he died of cancer at age 67, his son stood by the bedside. He is carrying the soil of the plains with him, even to his grave.

Another account states: While Sarah Jane Matthews and her husband were crossing the plains with a handcart company, the husband developed arthritis. Sarah carried him across the remaining streams. This is a literal example of supporting the priesthood. Card Though this story is recounted somewhat tongue-in-cheek, it nevertheless points to the fact that in story after story, pioneer women emerge as some of the strongest characters in the narratives.

One good sister lost her husband soon after the trek to Salt Lake had begun, and three of her six children died on the way. Though the pioneers had encountered Native Americans on the trek west, few accounts in the archive give details of these encounters. Once the pioneers had arrived in Utah, however, numerous stories developed recounting struggles between settlers and Native Americans. These narratives are full of dramatic intensity and once again characterize the pioneers as bold and heroic. Unfortunately, they also paint an uncomplimentary and dehumanizing picture of the Native Americans.

One can only wonder how some of the stories discussed below might sound told from the perspective of the Native Americans. Many stories of Indian raids and ruthless murders closely resemble accounts of the savagery perpetuated against the Mormons in Missouri a few decades earlier, suggesting that the Saints at times viewed both Missourians and Native Americans in a similar light.

They [the mob] saw the mother with the baby, and they killed his mother by shooting her. All this was witnessed by this young boy. Bryner A narrative from Sanpete County tells of a local massacre in almost parallel terms: These boys [hired to help with the grain harvest] were just about to this farm, and they could hear these Indians whooping and carrying on, so they got down and crawled through the grass over to where they could see this ranch.

The father must not have been at home at that time, and there was the mother and a little boy and then a baby. The little boy had run and hid and got away from them,. They took the baby and swung it around and hit its head on a tree and killed it. The way they had put [the mother]. In numerous accounts, Native Americans attempt to kidnap the children of the settlers, especially if the children are fair haired.

But they display their assumed depravity most clearly in accounts of how they treat other Native Americans, sometimes children kidnapped from other tribes, sometimes their own: Granddad. Granddad hesitated, and they placed her head on a chopping block and indicated they would chop her head off unless Granddad gave them the heifers. To save her life, he went along with their request.

Larsen In one instance in Cache Valley, an Indian father threatened to kill his own daughter if a family of settlers would not allow him to exchange her for food. The settlers took the little girl in and raised her as one of their own. When she. According to other accounts, the Indians actually released, rather than killed, dauntless foes. In narratives describing such encounters, the pioneer housewife is not unlike her predecessor in Missouri, who, as in the following story, fearlessly confronted mobsters: The Saints knew they were in danger, so it was not unusual for Grandmother to have her gun close by when she was alone.

One day two men came up to the door and said they were supposed to collect all of the weapons and they wanted her gun. One day when she was baking bread, a buck Indian came just as she was taking a loaf out of the oven. Now the Indian was only wearing a little breech cloth and when he went to take a loaf, she jerked the red-hot shovel right out of the stove and smacked him on the bare behinder.

Sabin The husband [of a newly settled farm] had gone off to get supplies. The wife and children were left by themselves. One night some Indians came and started bothering them. Finally the Indians camped right out in front of the cabin. The wife could not sleep because she knew the Indians were planning to kill her and her family. She got. She gathered her children, marched outside and spread their bedding out right in the middle of those Indians. She got her children to kneel down and had a family prayer.

Then they all crawled into bed and slept as much as they could under the circumstances. The next morning the Indian in charge told her they were planning on killing her and her family, but when they saw how brave she was they decided not to. After contemplating their situation for several moments the Indians began to shrink back away from this woman and toward the door leading to their safety.

The woman kept brandishing her weapon, threatening these intruders, and even sermonizing to them, saying that if they had come to her and asked in a gentle manner for something to eat she would gladly have given them what they requested. The Indians left. Later, however, they returned, this time in a different spirit. They asked the woman in a polite manner for some milk and cheese.

In some of the stories, resourceful pioneer women move beyond winning respect of the Native Americans through plucky acts of courage and instead diminish their humanity by reducing them to buffoons. Unable to breathe, she emerged from the barrel a ghastly white just as her unwelcome visitors burst into the house. And in still another example, a plucky pioneer girl turned a threatening Native American into a complete fool: [This family] lived quite close to the hills and Indians were camped quite close to the foothills.

This girl was washing; she had a washing machine that was an old wooden one that had a wheel that would. This Indian brave came down and he had long braids. He wanted different things that she had here at her home. I have no reason to doubt this story. Battles did occur, with casualties on both sides. Nor do any of the stories berating the Native Americans for begging for food suggest that they might occasionally have been reduced to such action because they had been driven from their homes and hunting grounds. In defense of the pioneers and especially of those who have kept narratives about them alive, I should add that most people who tell the stories do not necessarily do so to deprecate Native Americans; they tell them to illustrate the heroism of their ancestors in taming this land and establishing a new Zion.

Unfortunately, even today the stories have helped keep alive attitudes that might otherwise have disappeared long ago. In one story, for example, when the food supply of a southern Utah family was exhausted, a group of Native Americans appeared on the scene. They demanded food. They found it so bitter they spit it out and then left. This account leads us to the third category of popular pioneer stories— those illustrating struggles to survive in an inhospitable physical environment,.

Many of the stories, like the following, tell of both severe hunger and self-reliance: Things got really hard. There would be lean years on the farm, but. One day he was so hungry because he would share what he had with the children that he fainted in the store. Everyone thought that that was such willpower and remarkable that a man. They fed the family, and the next year things were better and he paid it all back again. Carson a Other stories tell how the pioneers suffered from lack of material goods and from the harshness of frontier living: When Grandma Gurr was a child, her mother told her of the hardships endured by those who settled in Orderville.

They had no houses, so the settlers had to dig holes in the ground. These they covered with brush. When it rained they had to leave, and she said as soon as it would start to drizzle, the people would begin to pop up like prairie dogs. They were all very poor and could not afford shoes, so in the winter they would take a hot board with them when they went to school. They would run as fast and as far as they could, and then they would put the board down and stand on it to warm their feet and then begin over again. Granddad Gurr was sixteen before he had a pair of shoes.

McDaniel And again: My grandfather. Matter and energy do not represent reality because they are abstractions, extreme generalizations of the reality we experience. We consider that the vacuum has not any energy. For problems with more nodes the Cpu-time was very large. The Cpu-time found are interesting and the gaps are few in the most of cases.

General Relativity Lecture 2

Category: Data Structures and Algorithms. Authors: C. Provatidis Comments: 13 Pages. Moreover, smoothed sequences by treatment of the aforementioned pairs are revealed. Authors: Philip J. Carter Comments: 71 Pages. Version 6. Completes the logic of the SU 2 x U 1 symmetry group. The ubiquity of complex numbers throughout fundamental physics has never been satisfactorily explained. Moreover, the mathematical primacy of complex and imaginary numbers suggests the primacy of complex and imaginary structures in Nature, while further implying the existence of imaginary spatial dimensions preceding real dimensions.

Authors: John A. Gowan Comments: 16 Pages. In the mathematical terms of Evariste Galois' "Group Theory", the "Tetrahedron Model" is a description of the symmetry group of light, including its destruction by asymmetric weak force decays producing our matter-only Cosmos , and its on-going restoration in obedience to Noether's Theorem of symmetry conservation as in the conversion of bound to free energy in stars. See diagram: "The Sun "Tetrahedron". The usual symmetry group identified with light is that of local phase transformations, and it is designated as either SO 2 or U 1. However, I am suggesting here that light contains a very much larger and more interesting symmetry group associated with its transformation into particle-antiparticle pairs and back again into light.

I don't know what the formal designation of this group might be. The paper is a preliminary study which gives the rigorous definition of the respective general mathematical model. This is a set of 25 articles, developed starting from the Relativistic Theory of Quantum Gravity first article. Together they form the Theory of Everything. Authors: A. Beckwith Comments: 7 Pages. We examine the role of particle nucleation in the initial universe, and argue that there is a small effect due to particle nucleation in terms of lowering initial temperature, in tandem with energy density and scale factor contribution.

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However, there is an alternative to astronauts or cosmonauts, or taikonauts reaching Mars and being unable to walk, or think clearly. Furthermore, it will be validated in the mathematics, of General Relativity GR , and the Einstein Field Equations EFEs , that the solution of the Black Hole Event Horizon, describes the maximum curvature, and the smallest, infinitesimal, most minimum space-time distance, of a gravitational field. Authors: Martin Singer , Jose M. Consuelo Comments: 7 Pages. This paper divides the economic costs of terrorism into short term and long term costs.

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The authors warn of the forced expenditure on security, supply chain security and supply system. They come to the conclusion that on the grounds of increasing risk of the terrorism, states are forced to transfer their resources from production an additional wealth to realization of security measures to protect existing resources, thus reducing the long-term productivity and output. Authors: Ming Zhang Comments: Pages.

Neutrosophy studies the origin, nature, scope of neutralities, and their interactions with different ideational spectra. It is a new philosophy introduced by Florentin Smarandache that extends fuzzy logic and is the basis of neutrosophic logic, neutrosophic probability, neutrosophic set theory, and neutrosophic statistics. Neutrosophy introduces a new concept , which is the representation of indeterminacy.

However, this theory is mostly discussed in physiology and mathematics. Thus, applications to prove this theory can solve real problems are needed. Image segmentation is the first and key step in image processing. It is a critical and essential component of image analysis and pattern recognition.

In this dissertation, I apply neutrosophy to three types of image segmentation: gray level images, breast ultrasound images, and color images. In gray level image segmentation, neutrosophy iv helps reduce noise and extend the watershed method to normal images. In breast ultrasound image segmentation, neutrosophy integrates two controversial opinions about speckle: speckle is noise versus speckle includes pattern information.

The experiments show the advantage of using neutrosophy. Category: Digital Signal Processing. In order to keep the early 20th century gravitational collapse model for stellar birth it was hypothesized that new stars are T Tauri Stars. The scientific definition for T Tauri Stars is unfalsifiable, so therefore it should be noticed that one reason for the gravitational collapse model for stellar birth being kept is because of T Tauri Stars lacking definition.

Authors: Sosale Chandrasekhar Comments: 18 Pages. Macromolecular aggregation and mechanical strength characterize polymer behavior, but apparently remain enigmatic: small molecules prefer to be solvated but macromolecules prefer to aggregate. This is a consequence of the enormous loss of solvent entropy attending macromolecular solvation. The additivity of weak e. However, even this would be overshadowed by the loss of solvent entropy in the case of its solvation.

Its manifestation is normally thwarted by the dominance of entropic effects in the weak interactions. The phenomenal mechanical properties of polymers are explicable by the above reassessment of current ideas. Category: Chemistry. Perezgonzalez studied the nutritional balance of cured meats in He found that sandwich-ready cured meats in New Zealand tend to be highly unbalanced, with average BNI values of around When cured meats are considered as part of a diet ie, all cured meats are consumed approximately in the same proportion over time , such hypothetical diet show an average nutritional balance of BNI Being an animal-derived product, they are also high in protein, fat and saturated fat, and low in carbohydrate, sugar and fiber.

It is hypothesized that blue giant stars are newly stabilized stars. Authors: H. Tadesse Comments: 2 Pages. Truth is the basis of our existence. Therefore, even in our daily lives we should practice telling the truth. Truth leads to consistency, harmony and peace. Telling the truth will even help us to overcome evil practices.

If we build a culture of telling the truth people will not do wrong in the first place. However, the reality is that people are more and more lying than telling the truth, at all levels. We are moving towards systems that are based on lies. Wherever truth is suppressed, there will be considerable inefficiencies and disharmony.


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Civilization, technological advancement and economic prosperity are only secondary to truth or these will not advance where truth is suppressed. Where truth is suppressed there will not be peace. There is a prophesy that tells us the time will come when it will be impossible to find someone who tells the truth1 and as we are living in the final days of our world that prophesy seems to start to apply to our time. Celebrating the Day of Truth helps us at least to remind us about truth. It may also help us to build a culture of truth if we understand the problem and practice following truth seriously.

It is hypothesized why Earth magmas are mostly silicon and not mostly iron. Authors: sangwha Yi Comments: 6 Pages.

Perceptual Dialectology

The theory is the general theory of the special relativity theory. You can consider that this theory treats the universe that can treat an inertial system. In this theory, be able to consider that the light has the velocity instead of. The hypothesized ejection of a cometary Venus from Jupiter by Velikovsky is reliant on multiple arbitrary considerations and can be disregarded. Granger Comments: 6 pages primary manuscript; 13 pages supplementary information.

An effective tool for analyzing correlations in disparate dynamical systems is the analogical model; such models can provide insights otherwise unrealistic to obtain. Analogical analysis can be done with any suitably defined set of object theories, but the challenge is in discovering models capable of yielding physical insights. Here I show such an analogical model between momentum and charge; analysis suggests voltage is limited to the speed of light and that capacitive charge becomes unbounded with voltage.

If confirmed, the ability to manipulate substantial mass-energy appears possible via electrodynamic means. Possible connections with dark energy and dark matter, vacuum energy, and the weak field are discussed in the supplementary information SI. This article offers descriptive data regarding the nutritional balance of standard rice milk. These data were collected for a research on milk and milk alternatives in New Zealand between and Perezgonzalez, Rice milk is made from rice and water.

The average rice milk in this sample is low in protein, high in carbohydrate and sugar, low in fat and saturated fat, low in fiber, and within maximum recommended limits for sodium. On average, rice milk has a nutritional balance of BNI The aim of this article is to show that the annihilation paradigma in Standard Model does not reconcile with classical electrodynamics, which in turn predicts the existence of electromagnetically opaque, i. Authors: editor Florentin Smarandache Comments: Pages.

Paradoxism was set up and led by Florentin Smarandache since Paradoxism is a literary, artistic, and scientific movement based on excessive use of antinomies, paradoxes, contradictions in creations. The study lies in the interdisciplinary area between the information theory and extenics, as the science of solving the contradictions. This space addresses the central issue of the ontology information, the contradictory relationship between communication and information. The research core is the reality that the scientific research of communication-information relationship has reached a dead end.

The bivalent relationship communication-information, informationcommunication has come to be contradictory, and the two concepts to block each other. With the Extenics as a science of solving the conflicting issues, "extenics procedures" will be used to solve the contradiction. Category: Social Science. It is hypothesized that quantum mechanics is a sociological phenomenon and is not a scientific theory.

The control algorithm to perform maneuvering, high speed stability, and fault tolerant controls effectively are derived based on high dynamic characteristics of in-wheel motor and advantages of independent steer and drive. The maneuvering controller applies sliding and optimal control theories considering optimal torque distribution and friction circle related to the vertical tire force.

Authors: W. A new notion of special quasi dual numbers is introduced. For the first time we construct non associative structures using them. We have proposed some research problems. Mixed dual numbers are constructed using dual numbers and special dual like numbers. The zero divisor graph of semigroups of finite modulo integers n under product is studied and characterized.

If n is a non-prime, the zero divisor graph is not a tree. We introduce the new notion of tree covering a pseudo lattice. When n is an even integer of the form 2p, p a prime, then the modulo integer zero divisor graph is a tree-covering pseudo lattice. This article offers descriptive data regarding the nutritional balance of flavored low-fat soymilk. Flavored low-fat soymilk is an illustrative example of the "unbalancing" effects of added sugar to an otherwise closer to nutritional balance low-fat soymilk.

Indeed, the average flavored low-fat soymilk in this sample turns out to be adequate in protein, carbohydrate and fat, low in saturated fat, low in fiber, high in sodium, and extremely high in sugar. On average, flavored low-fat soymilk has a nutritional balance of BNI Authors: D. Chandler , M. Chang , T. Kloks , J. Liu , S. Peng Comments: Pages. Let GG be a class of graphs. In this book we investigate probe graphs of various classes of graphs.

We propose in this work a signature verification system based on decision combination of off-line signatures for managing conflict provided by the SVM classifiers. The proposed framework allows combining the normalized SVM outputs and uses an estimation technique based on the dissonant model of Appriou to compute the belief assignments. Decision making is performed through likelihood ratio. Experiments are conducted on the well known CEDAR database using false rejection and false acceptance criteria. The obtained results show that the proposed combination framework improves the verification accuracy compared to individual SVM classifiers.

In this paper we extend their definitions from one dimension 1D to 2D, 3D, and in general n-D spaces. Several examples are given in 2D and 3D spaces. Authors: Robert L. Oldershaw Comments: 3 Pages. List of predictions and observational support are followed by general comments. Fourteen definitive predictions of Discrete Scale Relativity are listed and some general comments are included at the end. Four of the predictions have been vindicated or are strongly supported by observational evidence.

Authors: Samit Kumar Comments: 5 Pages. Authors: Branko Zivlak Comments: 2 Pages. Dirac [1] discussed relations of the order of magnitude 10 exp Authors after him [] introduced the relations of the order of 10 exp, the subject of this article. In the last decades, the existence of the Soul has been seriously considered by Quantum Physics.

It has been frequently described as a body of unknown energy coupled to human body by means of a mutual interaction. The Quantum Physics shows that energy is quantized, i. Thus, along the life of a person, the energy of its soul is characterized by several quantum levels of energy.

Here, we show by means of application of specific electromagnetic radiations on the human body, that it is possible to revert the energy of the soul to previous energy levels. This process can have several therapeutic applications. This article offers descriptive data regarding the nutritional balance of low-fat soymilk.

Low-fat light, or lite soymilk is made from soybeans and water, and contains around 1. This article, however, analyzes the nutritional balance of low-fat soymilk beyond its fat content. Indeed, the average low-fat soymilk in this sample is adequate in fat and low in saturated fat, but also high in protein, low in carbohydrate but high in sugar, low in fiber, and high in sodium for its energetic content. On average, low-fat soymilk has a nutritional balance of BNI It is hypothesized that planetary nebulae and supernovae have not been properly placed inside the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram.

A solution is offered to fill the gap. V2 adds Kerr-Newman Fermion picture. V3 and V4 mention E8 lattices. One of the reasons for renewing this interest lies in various theoretical attempts to construct a unified elementary particle theory, in which there is a natural prediction of new forces over macroscopic distances. It may be,that future space missions might be operating in this range which has been unexplored for very long time. To study the effect of the Yukawa correction to the gravitational potential and its corresponding signal delay in the vicinity of the Sun, we use a spherically symmetric modified space time metric where the Yukawa correction its added to the gravitational potential.

Next, the Yukawa correction contribution to the signal delay is evaluated. Provatidis Comments: 3 Pages. A common problem in multi-environment trials arises when some genotype-by-environment combinations are missing. The aim of this paper is to propose a new deterministic imputation algorithm using a modification of the Gabriel cross-validation method. The method involves the singular value decomposition SVD of a matrix and was tested using three alternative component choices of the SVD in simulations based on two complete sets of real data, with values deleted randomly at different rates.

The quality of the imputations was evaluated using the correlations and the mean square deviations between these estimates and the true observed values. The proposed methodology does not make any distributional or structural assumptions and does not have any restrictions regarding the pattern or mechanism of the missing data. Category: Statistics. Gowan Comments: 6 Pages. Because this is a General Systems website, I will occasionally point out parallels between the intuitive world views and systems of antiquity, mythology, and religion, and the rational world views and systems of modern-day science, as these convergences urge themselves upon me.

This is not to be construed as advocacy of any religion, but as a further demonstration of the fractal nature of reality, including that of our intuitive perceptual modes. Nevertheless, I have no doubt that the existence of such parallels, whether consciously recognized or not, is one reason why the major religious systems have persisted so long and so successfully. I use Christian examples only because that is the religion in which I was raised and am most familiar with. Similar examples could certainly be found in the other major religions by those familiar with them - JAG.

This article offers descriptive data regarding the nutritional balance of standard soymilk. This article, however, analyzes the nutritional balance of standard soymilk beyond its fat content. Indeed, the average standard soymilk is high in fat but low in saturated fat, adequate in protein, low in carbohydrate but high in sugar, low in fiber, and within maximum recommended limits for sodium. On average, standard soymilk has a nutritional balance of BNI Authors: M. Few years has passed from the latest formulation for the hierarchy of Planck constant.

The original hypothesis seven years ago was that the hierarchy is real. In this formulation the imbedding space was replaced with its covering space assumed to decompose to a Cartesian product of singular finite-sheeted coverings of M 4 and CP 2. Few years ago came the realization that the hierarchy could be only effective but have same practical implications. For most practical purposes the states in question would behave as if Planck constant were an integer multiple of the ordinary one.

It was no more necessary to assume that the covering reduces to a Cartesian product of singular coverings of M 4 and CP 2 but for some reason I kept this assumption. In the recent formulation this assumption is made and the emphasis is on the interpretation of the multi-sheetedness in the sense of Riemann surfaces resulting as a multi-furcation for a preferred extremal taking place at the partonic 2-surfaces. This gives a connection with complexity theory say in living systems , with transition to chaos, and with general ideas about fractality. Second quantization of the multi-furcation means accepting not only superpositions of branches as single particle states but also the analogs of many-particle states obtained by allowing several branches up to the maximum number.

This revives the ideas of N-atom, N-molecule etc.. The question whether gravitational Planck constant h gr having gigantic values results as an effective Planck constant has remained open. A simple argument suggests that gravitational four-momentum could be identified as a projection of the inertial four-momentum to the space-time surface and that the square of the gravitational four-momentum obtained using the effective metric defined by the anti-commutators of the modified gamma matrices appearing in the modified Dirac equation naturally leads to the emergence of h gr.

The question how intentional action is concretely realized is not only a key question in quantum consciousness theory but also in attempts to understand psychokinesis PK. In TGD framework the mechanisms of intentional action and PK are basically the same, and the article can be seen also as a proposal for how intentional action might be realized in TGD Universe. There are experimental results - such as the experiments of Libet - suggesting that intentional action involves a signal propagating to geometric past where it initiates the desired action.