Guide The United States Enters the World Stage: 1867 - 1919 (The Drama of American History Series)

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It also carries two distribution flags: Cultural Diversity and Writing. This course carries the flag for Cultural Diversity in the United States. Cultural Diversity courses are designed to increase your familiarity with the variety and richness of the American cultural experience. A substantial portion of your grade will come from assignments covering the practices, beliefs, and histories of at least one U. This course also carries the Writing Flag.

Writing Flag courses are designed to give students experience with writing in an academic discipline. In this class, you can expect to write regularly during the semester, complete substantial writing projects, and receive feedback from your instructor to help you improve your writing.

You should therefore expect a substantial portion of your grade to come from your written work. Readings: The following books are available at the Bookstore. A History, , 4th edition Oxford, Benjamin Franklin, Autobiography. Various editions. Masur ed. Anthony S. Parent Jr.

Course Requirements All students will attend weekly lectures and discussions that take place in the third class hour. Discussions will focus on the assigned readings and students will be expected to participate actively. Students are responsible for lecture material along with that contained in the required readings and for any changes to the syllabus that are announced in class. Although there is some overlap between texts and lectures, lectures do not simply repeat material in the readings.

I do not provide copies of lectures and attendees are prohibited from recording lectures and discussions. A schedule of the required readings is attached. The first will be a 5-page paper comparing the autobiographies of Benjamin Franklin and John Woolman. This essay is due on Sept. The second is a comparison of Richard S. The second and third papers will be a maximum of 6 pages. You may choose to hand in ONE of these papers up to a week late. Essays later than one week will be credited as work completed but will receive a mark of zero.

You also may choose to submit a re-written version of paper one. We will discuss the nature of the examinations and essays in class. The purpose of this course is to provide students with a thorough introduction to what is best described as the foundations of American History. No later period of United States History compares with these two and a half centuries in contributions to the fundamental shape and character of American society.

Pre-Revolution experiences and the structures of the various provincial British-American societies mattered in all that ensued. Building on these experiences late eighteenth and early nineteenth century Americans undertook a variety of experiments in politics, economics, social relations and international affairs that — just as the colonial past had done — posed profound questions about ethics and leadership in the nascent American society.

While these topics will inform weekly lectures, readings and discussion, they will be structured around four basic themes; occupation of the land; slavery; loyalty in the Revolutionary struggle; and the meanings of rights and equality in the new republic. These will require students to reflect on and appreciate perspectives that will enrich their capacity for present-day civic mindedness and engagement. Geographical literacy. This class will participate in a new History Department initiative to improve student geographical literacy using a digital history tool called Cerego. You will be required to complete a series of map exercises this semester that are intended to reinforce your grasp of geographical knowledge.

These exercises are accessible through Canvas. This course also carries the flag for Ethics and Leadership. Courses carrying the Ethics and Leadership Flag equip you with the tools necessary for making ethical decisions in your adult and professional life. Courses carrying this flag expose you to ethical issues and to the process of applying ethical reasoning in real-life situations.

Robert A. Knopf, Book of Primary Sources. Course Requirements All students are expected to attend Monday and Wednesday lectures and to have read the assignments listed for that date in advance of each class.


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Students are responsible for lecture material along with that contained in the assigned readings and for any changes to the syllabus announced in class. I do not provide copies of lectures and attendees are prohibited from recording lectures. No cell phones, tablets, e-readers, iPods, iPads, laptop computers, etc. This is an electronics free classroom. All laptops, cell phones, and other electronic devices must be turned off at the beginning of class. This will be a 5-page paper comparing the analyses in Robert A.

We will discuss how to structure such written comparisons in class. Late papers will be penalized by one full grade per day. Attendance: Students are expected to attend all classes. After two absences students will be penalized one half mark for each missed class from the assigned total of 5 marks for full attendance. There will be a final examination in this course during the end of term examination period.

This course is largely designed to introduce students to the major themes, issues, and debates in African American history from its African origins until today. It serves as a general introduction to the historical literature by providing lower division undergraduate students with an overview of the African American experience through readings, lectures, film, and music.

Some of the specific topics covered include African antecedents, colonial and antebellum slavery, the abolition movement, the free black experience, the Civil War, emancipation, Jim Crow segregation, racial violence, black culture, the modern freedom struggle, popular culture, political movements, and the contemporary experience. Ultimately, students should gain an understanding of how enslaved and free African Americans lived, worked, socialized, and defined themselves in American society.

The professor recognizes the importance of knowing key figures and events; however, the primary objective is to help students develop a solid understanding of the political, social, economic, and personal lives of African Americans from their arrival through today. Martin, Jr. This survey course will examine the history of Native American societies in North America from the earliest records to the present. Attention will be paid to political, social, economic and cultural transformation of Native American societies over time.

We will cover, among other things, the following topics: disease, religion, trade, captivity narratives, warfare, diplomacy, removal, assimilation, education, self-determination, and gaming. The Black Power movement was a distinct period in African American life from the late s and early s that emphasized racial pride, the creation of black political and cultural institutions, self-reliance, and group unity.

The expression of black power ideology ranged from the desire to create an all-black nation-state to the promotion of black economic power. This course will look at the major organizations, key figures, and ideologies of the black power movement. In this course, students may be required to read text or view materials that they may consider offensive.

Additionally, class discussions in this class can at times become intense. The ideas expressed in any given text or in class discussions do not necessarily reflect the views of the instructor, the History Department, or the University of Texas at Austin. This class will examine the history of the political, economic and cultural relations between the United States and Africa from the early origins of the slave trade to the present. It explores the role of the US in historical global contexts. The class is intended to elucidate historical developments both in the US and on the African continent, and should satisfy students with a strong interest in US history as well as those interested in the place of the US in the African Diaspora.

The semester is divided into four parts, each covering a major theme. The course aims; 1 to develop a base of African and US history and increase the level of awareness of the African Diaspora in the US; 2 to obtain a well-rounded approach to the political, economic, and cultural connections between the United States and Africa; 3 to reevaluate perceptions of Africa, to recognize the vibrant nature of African culture, and to apply new knowledge to the different cultural agents active in US popular culture, such as music, dance, literature, business and science; 4 to help students understand present-day politics in Africa at a deeper level and to obtain a better understanding of racial conditions in the US; and 5 to learn how to assess historical materials—their relevance to a given interpretative problem, their reliability and their importance—and to determine the biases present within particular scholarship.

These include historical documents, literature, and films. This course focuses on the basic history of Texas from roughly to Emphasis will be given to how and why Texas and Texans changed over time. Among the goals and objectives are for all students to understand how and why Texas was and was not like the regions and countries on its borders, what caused change or the absence of change, and what influenced the particular path to the 20th century of all Texans.

I expect you to attend class, do the readings, and move beyond a simple mastery of factual information. It is my hope that by the end of the semester you will think and act like an historian by engaging in the debate about the past and by using primary source material, the ideas and insights of trained professional historians, and your own critical thinking skills to place your understanding of the Texas past on a firm foundation.

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The readings and assignments in this course are designed to help you achieve these objectives by building skills as well as knowledge, and you will be graded not only on your mastery of basic factual information but on your ability to effectively organize and utilize that information.

Students learn to read, write and think like historians, that is to understand history as an academic discipline in terms of research methods, evidence, and analysis. Students read primary sources and examine how different historians have competing interpretations of particular topics. Students will write three short papers, several very brief responses to readings, complete two group research projects and develop a research paper framework. Students learn to read, write and think like historians, that is to understand different historical approaches to crucial questions about the past.

Our case study will be World War I , a global conflict, and probably the most decisive event of the twentieth century. We will consider social, cultural, military, and geo-political history. We will read secondary and primary sources including fiction and film. How and why do historians argue? What is in an archive, what can you do it with, and how?

The Scientific Revolution of the 17th century produced several fundamental shifts in the way people have viewed the natural world and their own place in it. In this course we will examine the roots and course of this revolution and trace the main outlines of the new world it helped to create.

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This course explores a selection of episodes in the history of science and mathematics. It has four interlocking goals: to provide an overview of the history of science and math for general education and to better comprehend subjects that you may eventually teach ; to enable you to put these historical perspectives and context to work in pedagogy; to sharpen your independence of thought; and to improve your writing skills. Students will design and prepare Two 5E Lesson Plans each having a minimum length of words.

Detailed instructions will be distributed separately.

United States in World War I - Wikipedia

You will select the subject of these lesson plans from a variety of options. Once graded, you will incorporate corrections into your lesson plan, to electronically post the revised product, which will improve your grade. There will be several quizzes and writing assignments. All students will take a Midterm Exam, designed to test the extent to which you have followed, engaged, and learned from the topics discussed in class and in the readings. Furthermore, you will do a Presentation of one of your lesson plans to a group of peers. You will also write Comments on other presentations.

Finally, all students will have to take a Final Exam. You are required to attend one such session per week, to carry out work for the course. This is an upper-division history course. The assigned readings vary in length, and it's better to read thoughtfully rather than waste your time skimming and forgetting. Some of the readings will be from primary sources such as writings by prominent scientists , other readings will be from secondary texts such as by historians. You will also be required to do additional research and reading for the lesson plans; so keep this in mind when budgeting your time for this course.

Classes will be conducted as a mixture of lecture and discussion. Accordingly, attendance and participation are important, as you can also see from the grading distributions below. Attendance will be taken daily, and will be used in evaluating your overall grade for class participation.

You're welcome to speak up at any time. This course explores the history of American foreign relations from the eighteenth century to the outbreak of the First World War in During this period, the United States established many of the patterns of thought and behavior that have characterized the nation in more recent times. Understanding these early years of America's relationship with the wider world can help us gain important insight into current dilemmas, debates, and controversies. The course aims for both breadth and depth. Some lectures and readings are aimed at providing a broad view of the political and ideological currents that fed into the making of foreign policy.

Other lectures and readings go into depth on particular topics - the American Revolution, the Louisiana Purchase, the Texas Revolution, and especially the the Spanish-American and Philippine-American Wars that marked the emergence of the United States as a world power. There are no prerequisites for the course, but students are expected to have a basic grasp of U. In less than a century Egypt experienced four radically different forms of political community, economic organization and public culture as it swiftly moved from Colonialism to Liberalism, Arab-Socialism and Authoritarian Capitalism.

A fifth shift, Islamic Republicanism is pending. In each stage Egypt went through a complete reshuffling of the state structure and public culture. Each of these phases was experienced with great emotional intensity. The aim of this class is to critically examine the social, political and intellectual dynamics which shaped these experiences. What sort of expectations did Egyptians have in each phase, who came up with these revisionist ideas, and who put them to work and how?

Description: Hitler and the Nazis have given twentieth-century Germany a world-historical significance it would otherwise have lacked. Even from our vantage point, the Nazi regime is still one of the most dramatic and destructive episodes in western European, indeed, in world history. Nazism is synonymous with terror, concentration camps and mass murder. Hitler's war claimed the lives of tens of millions and left Europe in complete ruins. The danger resides in the temptation to view all of German history from the end of the nineteenth-century onwards as merely the pre-history of Nazism, thereby failing to deal with each period on its own terms.

And what do we do with the more than half a century of German history since ? New political and social systems were imposed upon the two sides of the divided Germany by the victors. The hostilities of the Cold War appeared to ensure a permanent division of Germany, which in assumed a compelling symbolic form, the Berlin Wall.

What exactly this newest version of the German nation will look like in ten or twenty years is still unclear. What factors contributed to the rise of Nazism and how did the Nazi regime affect Germany and Europe? Were all vestiges of Nazism destroyed in ? We will end by talking about the consequences of the end of the Cold War and the fall of the Berlin Wall to the present.

Here, the main questions will be: Did, West and East Germany follow fundamentally new paths? What clues can be found in the histories of the Federal Republic in West Germany and the German Democratic Republic in East Germany since that may indicate the possibilities for change in the future? This course examines Chinese economy, society, and politics during the reform era since the late s in a historical context.

This class examines U. As such, Chinese have played key roles in the evolution of U. This course offers an overview of the history of Chinese in America with an emphasis on Chinese American identity and community formations under the shadow of the Yellow Peril. Using primary documents and secondary literature, we will examine structures of work, family, immigration law, racism, class, and gender in order to understand the changing roles and perceptions of Chinese Americans in the United States from to the present. This course will explore questions of ethnicity, empire, and modernization in East Asia from the sixteenth century to the present through encounters between aborigines, Han Chinese, Dutch, Portuguese, the imperial Qing, Fujianese, Japanese, mainlander KMT, and the United States on Taiwan.

Sharpe, We will also focus on the Cold War, why attempts at reform failed under Khrushchev, Gorbachev, and Yeltsin, and the emergence of a dissident movement during the Brezhnev era. How state policies affected ordinary people will be examined throughout the course. You will gain an appreciation of the almost unimaginable suffering the Soviet people experienced. Many of the readings have been selected with an eye toward introducing you to primary documents and the major historiographic debates in Soviet history. We will also view film clips and documentary footage.

What were the crusades? Was a crusade an armed pilgrimage, holy war, or a war of conquest? What motivated those who fought and those supported these expeditions? What were the political, cultural, and religious developments that led to the crusades and what were their legacies both in Europe and in the eastern Mediterranean? This class explores these questions by examining both accounts of crusades written by medieval authors and modern historians' interpretations of these documents.

In the process, we will investigate religious encounters between eastern and western Christians, Christian heretics, Jews, Muslims, and polytheists; political, military, and cultural changes of the high middle ages; and the ways that crusading ideas and symbols have been reused in contemporary politics and popular culture. This course investigates the political, military, constitutional, diplomatic, and social aspects of the American Civil War and Reconstruction.

The emphasis will be on the military and political facets of the war while also focusing on how the war resulted in the destruction of slavery. The goal is to provide students with an understanding of the major events and leaders of the war and its aftermath. The history of Reconstruction will be considered during the last several class sessions. The Civil War , Library of America 4 vol. In addition to the final examination which will be comprehensive , there will be two midterm exams.

The exams will consist of short-answer and essay questions on the material from the classes and readings including any handouts that may come your way from the instructor. Description : The Indian Subcontinent can teach us a great deal about diversity in the cultures of the past. It also teaches us about the conditions under which such diversity can be lost. For these reasons, we need to understand the carving out of the Indian subcontinent into separate political units called India and Pakistan respectively in Aims : 1 to acquaint students with basic concepts and a simplified chronology of events, people, and processes.

One does not delete an email: it is archived. How do we understand a world of archives, where data and information are the keys to twenty-first century capitalism? We will investigate archives as a focal point around which to understand the practice of history, the relationship between archives and modern memory, and in the context of the emergence of the state, bureaucracy, the public sphere, and the beginnings of the information age: What binds the processes through which history and memory are constructed, and how do institutions that foster historical scholarship, such as archives, play an active role in the formation of historical narratives and communal memory?

And once past the Kafkaesque keeper of the keys to history, one may find him or herself, literally, buried alive in the historical evidence. We will investigate the nature of archives and their purpose in civil society, public life, and the historical discipline, and what if any relationship exists between the twenty-first century everyday digital archiving experience and the future of history. Global Environmental History explores how human societies and natural environments have shaped each other in world history.

This semester, we will focus on the theme of climate change. The planet is currently warming at a rate unprecedented in human history, yet historial perspectives can help us face this present-day problem. This course will examine how a variety of human cultures have understood and responded to changing climates in the recent and deep past.

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We will also analyze how historical shifts in practices of land use, industrialization, and capitalism have led to global warming. This course is an upper-division, reading- and writing-intensive seminar. It acts as an introduction to the growing field of environmental history, as well as to a variety of approaches to understanding history at a scale beyond the nation-state. Carey, Mark. Oxford University Press, Degroot, Dagomar. Cambridge University Press, Malm, Andreas. Verso Books, Oreskes, Naomi, and Erik M. Bloomsbury press, Yale University Press, White, Sam.

Zilberstein, Anya. Since the late s, the African film industry has undergone radical changes that reflect an increasingly globalized economy and the impact of structural adjustment policies. This revolution is characterized by the low-budget, direct to video films commonly referred to as Nollywood. While these films have come under criticism for their low production values and popularization of negative cultural stereotypes, the Nigerian video industry has risen to colossal proportions, sweeping across the continent and throughout the global diaspora.

The purpose of this course is to examine the rise of Nollywood and the genesis of a popular African art form. Through a combination of films and readings, students will explore how Nollywood, in comparison with the established FESPACO film industry and Hollywood, depicts the society and culture of Nigeria, and Africa as a whole. Additionally, this course seeks to engage students in a debate about how popular films affect historical imaginations and memory. While these images have previously been the product of Hollywood and Francophone films, this course will introduce Nollywood as an alternative to how Nigerians and Africa as a whole understand their history.

Texts: Haynes, Jonathan, ed. Nigerian Video Films. Athens: Ohio University Press, Rosenstone, Robert A. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, Saul, Mahir and Ralph A. Austen, eds. Debates among and between European, North American, Latin American, and Caribbean scholars and politicians over what countries should be included in -- and excluded from -- the Latin American region, and for what political, social, cultural, ethnic, economic, and historical reasons, have continued well into the 21stcentury. Keeping debates over periodization in mind, the course adopts a long nineteenth century roughly ss as its historical timeframe, and will proceed somewhat chronologically, but more importantly, thematically.

Students individually and in groups will read and analyze a combination of articles, chapters from books, and primary sources to better understand the implications of major regional trends and exceptions including: the Bourbon Reforms; the transnational causes and local effects of Independence; the caudillo question; the US-Mexican and Independent Indian War; slavery, manumission, and emancipation; processes of republican territorial nation-state formation as linked to changing racial, ethnic, class, labor, and gender relations; the emergence of international trade networks; urbanization; and health and hygiene campaigns.

This class is also intended to help students understand the different audiences that historians address, from public history in the digital age to scholarly historical writing. Note on Foreign Language Materials: This class does not require you to have any background in a language other than English. And yet, through this class, you will develop some basic language skills that will allow you to read original primary sources in foreign languages and translate them into English.

ALL readings listed in the syllabus, however, are required readings. There will be an optional course reader available for readings that are not easily accessible online. How do societies understand illness, and how do they restore good health?

During the first six weeks, we read about the changing role of specialist healers since the s, including shamans, malams, nurses, and drug peddlers. The second half of the course turns to the history of specific health concerns and diseases including malaria, reproductive health, and AIDS through regional case studies. Particular emphasis is placed on pre-colonial healing, medical education, colonial therapeutics, and the impact of environmental change.

This course offers participants a nuanced, historical perspective on the current health crisis in Africa.

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The United States Enters the World Stage

Staggering figures place the burden of global disease in Africa; not only AIDS and malaria, but also pneumonia, diarrhea and mental illness significantly affect the lives of everyday people. Studying the history of illness and healing in African societies provides a framework with which to interpret the social, political, and environmental factors shaping international health today. This course enables the history major to engage in original research in international relations during the turbulent era of the Cold War.

The primary documentation that each student will use for this research project will come from the National Security Files of the Johnson White House. Students will access these documents in the archive reading room on the eighth floor. Student and professor will determine together a suitable reading available in the PCL or other UT library. Total possible points In this course we will explore twentieth-century Russian history through its representation in film. Russian movies during this period -- popular entertainment features, avant-garde experiments, radical revolutionary agitation, and animation -- include some of the greatest films ever made.

Emphasis in discussions and writing assignments will be on the ways that films "write" history, and the cultural and political pressures that shaped the depictions of historical issues in particular periods. This course examines women and gender in China from imperial times to the present. There is no prerequisite for attending this course, but some background in Chinese history is recommended. Personal Voices: Chinese Women in the 's. Most scholars of alcohol and drug use have concentrated upon its physiological aspects. It is clear that addiction and craving have a physical and, in many cases, even a genetic basis.

Yet, as many anthropologists and sociologists have pointed out, cultures directly affect the types of drugs used, how they are used, and for what purposes. In addition, one can examine a culture's drug use and attitude toward it and often discover a great deal about its functioning and values. Thus, drug use is not only a cultural product but also a key social and historical descriptor. At the same time, that whites looked for a system of labor and the Black Codes to bind blacks to the land, as slavery had, freed people coveted land of their own and struggled to be masters of their own time and labor.

Former slave owners in the South were vigilant about protecting their interests. Before the Civil War labor was the key to wealth in the South; after the war land was the key. It was these powerful national and international forces that guaranteed the restored nation had a more unif ied economy than ever before.

Railroads helped open the South's economy to national forces. Arguably railroads did as much as anything else to stitch the nation back together again. The late s and s were a period of breakneck railroad construction and consolidation. Although it is commonplace to dwell on the completion of a transcontinental rail line in , the extensive reconstruction and expansion of southern railroads destroyed during the Civil War was of equal importance. Northern railroad companies and investors loomed large in these developments.

Nothing more dramatically symbolized the emerging integrated national market than the massive regional effort on a single day in when all of the small gauge rail lines in the South were moved several inches wider and realigned with the rail lines of the North. Country store, Jenkins County, Georgia. Another crucial economic development of the Reconstruction era was the transformation of the southern system of credit.

That is, southern planters borrowed against their projected earnings in cotton. This system of credit was shattered by the Civil War, and the South became a credit poor region for decades to come. White landowners had land but no cash to pay laborers; former slaves had labor but no cash or credit to buy land.

Records of the office of the Chief of Ordnance

As a result, a system of sharecropping emerged in the South that enabled landowners to secure labor and workers to secure access to land. Little if any cash was exchanged in the system of sharecropping; both the landowner and the laborer received cash only at the end of the growing season when harvested cotton was sold at the market. In this new economy, the most important source of credit was the local store where agricultural supplies and food were purchased.

In other words, the local merchant, not some distant British cotton trader, was the immediate source of credit. In short, the South was effectively brought into a national system of credit and labor as a result of Reconstruction. Neither serfdom nor peasantry would replace slavery.

And southern landowners and freedmen, whether they wanted to or not, were incorporated into the national credit markets. Let us now take stock of the answers to the questions that we began with. In short, on national terms. Property was not expropriated or redistributed in the South.

Reforms that were imposed on the South—the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments, for example—applied to the entire nation. What implications did the Civil War have for citizenship? The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments represented stunning expansions of the rights of citizenship to former slaves. Even during the depths of the Jim Crow era in the early twentieth century, white supremacists never succeeded in returning citizenship to its pre-Civil War boundaries. African Americans especially insisted that they may have been deprived of their rights after the Civil War but they had neither surrendered nor lost their claim to those rights.

However impoverished and credit starved, the former Confederacy was integrated back into the national economy , laying the foundation for the future emergence of the most dynamic industrial economy in the world. African Americans would not be enslaved or assigned to a separate economic status. But nor would African Americans as a group be provided with any resources with which to compete. Possible student perceptions of Reconstruction Aside from the challenge of organizing the complex events of the Reconstruction era into a narrative accessible to students, the biggest challenge is to help students understand what was possible and what was not possible after the Civil War.

Students, for example, may be inclined to believe that white Americans were never committed to racial equality in the first place so Reconstruction was doomed to failure. Some students may fixate on northern white hypocrisy; many white Republicans pressured southern voters to pass the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments even while they opposed its passage in the North. Yet others may emphasize that citizenship rights for blacks were hollow because blacks had no economic resources; blacks in postwar America could not easily escape an economic system that was slavery by another name.

Each of these positions is worth discussion, but each tends to flatten out the motivations and behavior of the actors in the drama of Reconstruction. And virtually all of these interpretations presumed that the outcome of Reconstruction was both inevitable and wholly outside the hands of African Americans. Ask students to design their own version of Reconstruction.

If your students are like mine, many will propose that Reconstruction should have guaranteed equal rights for all Americans. I then ask them to define what those rights should have been. At this point, even students who are in broad agreement about the principle of equal rights for all Americans may differ on the specific content of those rights. For example, some may stress economic equality whereas others may emphasize equality of opportunity. In any case, the next step is to ask the students to think about how they would have turned their principle into policy.

Those who stress the need for equal opportunity may sketch out the need for public education for freed people and other southerners. I next ask students where the requisite resources for these policies would come from. For example, where would the federal government have gotten the land and money to provide former slaves with land and livestock?

If the federal government had expropriated land and resources from former slave masters, what consequences would that policy have had for private property elsewhere in the United States? If the government could take lake and property from former slave masters, would it then have had precedent to later take land and property from former slaves?

In response to students who propose universal public education, I ask them about the funding for these new schools. Who would pay for them?


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If taxes needed to be raised, what and whom should have been taxed? Should the schools have been integrated? If so, how would the resistance of white southerners to integrated schools be overcome? If not, would separate schools for blacks and white have legitimized segregation? Through this exercise, students gain a better sense of how all of the facets of Reconstruction were interrelated and how any broad principle was shaped by the circumstances, constraints, and traditions of the age.

Equally important, students will better appreciate how astute African Americans were in pursuing their goals during the Reconstruction era. They recognized that the Civil War had ended slavery and destroyed the antebellum South, but it had not created a clean slate on which they had a free hand to write their future. Instead, black Americans were constantly gauging what was possible and who they might ally with to translate their long-suppressed hopes into a secure and rewarding future in American society. The role of African Americans in Reconstruction The search by African Americans for allies during Reconstruction is the focus of another worthwhile exercise.

It is essential for students to understand that African Americans were active participants in Reconstruction. They were not the dupes of northern politicians. Nor were they cowed by southern whites. This said, African Americans never had decisive control over Reconstruction. Whatever their goals, they needed allies. With that fundamental reality in mind, Ask students to identify the major stakeholders in Reconstruction. Typically, students will identify the major actors as white northerners, white southerners and blacks.

Product Highlights History is dramatic-and the renowned, award-winning authors Christopher Collier and James Lincoln Collier demonstrate this in a compelling series aimed at young readers. Covering American history from the founding of Jamestown through present day, these volumes explore far beyond the dates and event. About This Item We aim to show you accurate product information.

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